History of music
Often, there is no direct evidence necessary for accurate coverage of the story and this task is not simple.
What is known about the history of music?
Aesthetics of music originated before musical culture as such. Music was treated as an instrument of influence on the forces of nature and the other world. About aesthetics, the meaning and influence of music on the formation of man and society, about what was music.
From the history of music
Before the Renaissance, music was exclusively church art, which is based on polyphony.
Subsequently, under the influence of folk music, its meaning changes. There are completely new types of instrumental music, schools for playing various instruments appear. Mastery in the manufacture of bowed instruments is also developing rapidly.
The era of the Middle Ages. Europe.
At this time, there were:
professional musical art is mainly church and to a lesser extent secular;
amateur playing musical instruments (troubadours, trouvers, minnesingers);
Gradually, music becomes not only ecclesiastical, other types and genres arise, new musical instruments – viola, lute, etc., are spreading, musical groups gather.
The music trends of this period are canonicity and collectivity. There is a musical notation, it becomes possible to record schemes of musical works.
At the end of the first millennium, genres appear: polyphony, organum, motet, conduct, mass. The importance of song genres is also increasing.
In Eastern Europe, independent musical cultures are being formed. In Byzantium, Kievan Rus, cult iconic singing (troparia, stichera, hymns, etc.) is developing. There is a kind of note recording (hooks).
A separate musical culture was also in the East. She was distinguished by a high level of secular professionalism, features of national thinking.
Renaissance (14-16 centuries). Europe.
The ideas of humanism stimulate the development of secular musical art. Music begins to more and more reflect the inner world of a person, its aesthetic significance is enhanced. The degree of canonicity and collectivity of music is reduced. Amateur music is becoming more. Songs, hymns, chorales, psalms are created.
In professional music, choral polyphony is a cappella.
In Russia at this time, the flowering of folk and urban household music, the emergence of polyphony, choirs.
The transition from feudal to bourgeois types of musical culture lasts until the end of the 18th century. Music becomes more secular than church music. Its circle of topics is expanding significantly. There are opera houses, philharmonic societies, and conservatories. At the beginning of the 18th century, the first piano appears. Music science, criticism is emerging.
Under the influence of the styles of Borocco, Rococo, Classicism, new works are born. New genres, opera, orchestra concerts, new musical forms (rondo, sonata) are emerging.
National musical cultures are being formed.
Mid 18th – early 19th century. Europe.
Bourgeois, enlightening classicism, ethical ideals prevail. Transformed opera, symphony, sonata, chamber ensembles. It finally develops and displaces the polyphonic harmony system.
The first domestic operas appear in Russia, the ground is being prepared for the creation of a national musical classic.
19th century. Europe and North America.
Music prints are appearing. The performance process is finally separated, which helps to accelerate the development of both him and creativity. In parallel, the commercialization of music is developing, and music is also being used for socio-political purposes. Romanticism is developing with its increasing significance of the vocal, song component, harmonic expressiveness, the emergence of new forms and genres.
In Russia, musical classics and romance are flourishing and gaining world significance. On the basis of Russian folk songs, new musical instruments are being developed that significantly enrich the system of frets used in European countries. The beginning of the 20th century is the era of experimentation in music. The tonal base is expanding (due to the use of natural and artificial modes), atonal music appears.
The development is powerfully influenced by historical events, revolution, the emergence of socialism. A scientific and technological leap is taking place. Sound recordings appear, movies, radio, television. Music is spreading at a completely different speed and scale. The dynamics of changes in musical life has changed. Music began to bring huge profits. Demand is one of the signs of significance. Demand for it is not declining. Music every year is becoming more diverse and accessible.