Music and the brain of the child
According to numerous studies, the use of music as an additional sensory influx significantly improves speech functions in preschool children.
Any activity, in particular, intellectual, is provided by the functional work of the brain associated with the perception and processing of information.
One of the paradoxes of our time is that the functional capabilities of the human body have remained unchanged since ancient times, and you need to know and be able to disproportionately more than before. This explains the tendency that has emerged in modern pedagogy towards earlier intensive training — early development techniques are widely used in pedagogical practice; at an earlier age than before school begins.
And, indeed, according to many physiologists, psychologists, and educators (L.S. Vygotsky, G. Doman, N. A. Zaitsev, M. Ibuka, A. N. Leontiev, G. Yu. Malyarenko, R. S. Nemov , B.P. Nikitin, J. Piaget, and others) it is precisely the age of up to seven years that is the period of the formation of the personality of the child and his character; the period when the intellectual base is laid, on the basis of which the human mental activity will subsequently develop; period of active growth and development of the brain and interneuronal connections.
The formation of brain structures and interneuronal connections is due to the impact on the system of human senses of various sensory streams, because the development of a child occurs not only according to the genetic program. A.V. Zaporozhets emphasized that the social environment is not just necessary conditions, but a genuine source of child development. This idea lies at the basis of modern theories of the early intellectual development of man (G. Doman, M. Ibuka, S. Suzuki, M. Montessori, M.L. Lazarev, N. Zaitsev and others).
According to some scholars, a human being, developing from the moment of birth in the complete absence of signals from the outside world (sensory influx), would be completely devoid of mental functions (H. Delgado). Sensory influx has an optimal effect when it falls into the sensitive periods of the development of mental functions, i.e. periods of particular sensitivity of certain functions to external influences.
The nervous system of a preschool child is extremely plastic and sensitive to external influences (D.A. Farber). It is this age that is most favorable for improving the activity of the senses, the accumulation of ideas about the world (L.A. Wenger, R.S. Nemov and others).
According to numerous studies, the use of music as an additional sensory influx significantly improves speech functions in preschool children (C.Hoskins 1988), improves the memorization of key phrases and facilitates the assimilation of information by preschool children (C.W. Park, S.M. Yong 1986).
Under the influence of music, short-term verbal memory improves, colors, names of geometric shapes, numbers, pictures are better remembered (S. Rosenberg 1993, M. Spighhiger 1995). According to N.N. Bragina, T.A. Dobrokhotova and L.P. Novitskaya, music helps to facilitate visual perception. It has been confirmed that music reduces psycho-emotional stress, helps to focus attention, as well as involvement of children in activities, which helps them achieve the goal in mastering various skills (D.L. Nelson, A.A.Darrow, K.Aldridge).
Recently, a huge number of preschool institutions, gymnasiums, gymnasiums, lyceums, etc., have appeared in which young children are taught reading, writing and mathematics. But, as a rule, they teach there, using the technology of school instruction. Sitting at desks, writing in copybooks, homework. Often, the psychophysiological characteristics of a given age are not taken into account: the leading type of activity is a game, mainly visual-figurative thinking, instability of mental processes, increased emotionality, involuntary attention – children only remember information that causes direct interest, insufficient formation of the musculoskeletal system.
Due to the increase in training loads, problems of a valeological nature arise – stresses, an increased state of anxiety, fatigue, and deterioration of children’s health in general. According to psychophysiologists (T.M. Maryutina, O.Yu. Ermolaev, A.L. Sirotyuk), during brain formation (up to 7-9 years), the contribution of the right hemisphere to psychological functioning exceeds the contribution of the left hemisphere, the cognitive activity of children in under the age of 7 years has a direct, holistic and imaginative character.