On the relevance of the use of music in teaching children to read, write and math
From ancient times to the present day, musical art has undoubtedly been recognized by philosophers, musicians, and teachers as an indispensable means of developing the spiritual world of man. No art can compare with music by the power of emotional impact.
In ancient Greece, musical art was given the leading role in education. The great Aristotle emphasized not only the pedagogical, but also the therapeutic value of music, believing that music through catharsis removes heavy mental experiences.
Pythagoras believed that music, as a manifestation of cosmic harmony, can create in man the same internal order and harmony as in space. It is known that music also has a therapeutic effect on the human body. Hippocrates also used in his medical practice the influence of music on the sick.
In the XVI century, music began to be used during surgical operations.
The outstanding Czech teacher Jan Amos Comenius, the creator of the progressive and relevant pedagogical system to this day, has introduced musical art into the number of compulsory school subjects.
In the 20th century, interest in the influence of music on the formation of the spiritual world and on the human psyche has sharply increased throughout the world. More and more doctors, psychologists and teachers tried to convey to people the importance of music education for cultural life in general. The famous German composer, teacher, creator of children’s musical instruments Karl Orff founded a school in Munich in 1924, in which children were trained and educated according to a system of rhythmic movements (gymnastics, dance, pantomime), combined with collective playing music.
The author of the book “Human Formation through Music” V. Wünsch considers music as the central subject of teaching, which forms a person and allows him to gain spiritual experience.
Many teachers, creators of progressive musical techniques (B. Bartok, S. Suzuki, D. Kabalevsky and many others) talk about the need to teach all children music, regardless of their natural abilities. Currently, in a number of countries (England, Canada, Japan, etc.), musical art is a compulsory subject not only in a comprehensive school, but also in higher educational institutions.
The results of modern research in the field of the influence of music on children provide a basis for reflection on the need for a deeper introduction of musical art in the educational process of the school, especially the initial one. In younger schoolchildren, unlike other age periods, visual-figurative thinking and emotional-sensory perception of reality prevail; for them, game activity remains relevant. The specificity of musical art, its artistic and figurative nature perfectly meets the personal needs of a child of primary school age.
Currently, music is actively used in psychotherapeutic practice. V.M.Bekhterev spoke about the great importance of music in the aesthetic education of a child from the first days of his life, emphasizing also its therapeutic and hygienic significance. In his work “Objective Psychology”, he talked about the influence of music on the activity of the heart, blood pressure, metabolism, working capacity and other functions and shared this effect on stenic and asthenic.
Stenic – the positive effect of tone stimuli, harmony, melody and rhythm on the function of organs, asthenic – respiratory depression, metabolism, vasospasm. Music that has a stenic influence has certain characteristics – tempo at the level of heart rate, regular rhythm, the absence of too high sounds, dynamics at the level of average sound volume, mainly harmonic cadences, etc.
Many works (W. Stilman 1990, J. White 1992 and others) demonstrate the positive effect of music perception on physiological and behavioral reactions, as well as on a person’s emotional state in situations of anxiety.
Music is not only perceived through emotions, but also able to correct them. T.Yu. Alekseeva musical art is presented as a means of correcting emotional maladaptation in elementary school students (1998). All this suggests that children’s perception of specially selected music gives a psychotherapeutic and general health effect, the need for which is also relevant in our time.
Music also has a positive effect on the intelligence of the child.
Hungarian teacher Zoltan Kodai believed that “without music, a person cannot be full-fledged – he is just a fragment.” Back in 1951, he created the first school with an expanded teaching of music. In his schools, academic performance increased sharply compared to other schools, and this, despite the fact that the volume of teaching other subjects had to be reduced in favor of music lessons. This experiment was repeated in Switzerland (1988-1991) and also revealed positive results. The results of this experiment are recorded in the work of E.V. Weber “Music makes school.”