The device of an electric guitar on the example of Fender Stratocaster:
1-Vulture. 2-body. 3-head neck. 4-upper nut. 5-Porozhek fret. 6-Kolka. 7-bridge (with tremolo). 8-pickup humbucker. 9-Pickup single. 10-Lever. 11-pickup switch. 12-tone control 13-volume control. 14-Socket for connecting the cord. 15-Hole for adjusting the anchor. 16-belt attachment. 17-fret marker.
The fretboard of the electric guitar (1) is practically no different from the acoustics and consists of two parts: the fretboard itself and the overlay fastened with glue. Recall that the fingerboard is its upper part, on which the frets are located. On the head of the neck (3) there are also pegs (6), and inside the neck there is an anchor, the task of which is still the same – to prevent the strings from bending the neck. The bar can be glued to the deck, or it can be attached with screws (this is one of the differences from acoustics).
Like an acoustic guitar, an electric guitar has a fretboard, body, strings, pegs … But the body of an electric guitar is not at all the same as an acoustic one, but flat.
The body of the electric guitar (2) can be completely made of wood, or hollow.
Hollow-body guitars have a warm, rich sound and are commonly used in jazz, blues and country. The disadvantages of these guitars are the rapid fading of the sound, and the occurrence of a creaking sound when playing at high volume.
The case for whole-body guitars is made of either one or several pieces of wood, usually of the same grade, which are glued to each other. The more places the body is glued together, the worse the sound will be, due to the loss of wood resonance in these places. An exception is some models of guitars, the body of which is intentionally made of different types of wood to improve sound. Such guitars have a sharper and more aggressive sound, which is most suitable for playing heavy music.
Now that fundamentally distinguishes an acoustic guitar from an electric guitar.
A bridge or machine (7) is a device with which strings are attached to a deck. There are two types of breeches: with and without tremolo (in the figure, the bridge with tremolo). Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages.
Breeches with a tremolo system is a movable stand, which is driven by a lever (10), which allows you to change the tension of all strings and create a vibrato effect even with open strings. Typically, these machines are placed on stratocaster and similar tools. Such machines allow you to change the pitch by one and a half to two tones, which greatly diversifies the sound.
Unfortunately, guitars with such machines have a number of drawbacks: if a string breaks, then the guitar immediately gets upset; the guitar is much more difficult to tune or rebuild in an alternative system; bridges of this type have a shorter duration of notes; due to the large number of parts, such machines more often fail.
Breeches without tremolo are placed on guitars such as telecaster and semi-acoustics. Their design is even simpler, the number of parts is minimized, due to which guitars equipped with such bridges hold the line better, sound more melodically, there are less problems with them when you need to quickly change strings.
For beginners, it is better to choose guitars equipped with a typewriter with a simple tremolo (when the typewriter works only to lower the sound) or not at all.
Under the strings on the body of the electric guitar are sensors – pickups that convert the vibrations of the string into an electric signal. The pickup is a very important part of the guitar, the sound produced by the guitar depends on their type and quality.
Pickups come in two types: singles (single) (9) and humbuckers (hambucker) (8). Singles have a clear and transparent sound. These pickups are used when playing in the blues and country styles. The disadvantage associated with the design of such sensors is a lot of extraneous noise and a strong background when playing with distortion. Although now released split singles, which have significantly reduced noise.
Humbuckers suppress extraneous noise and are better suited to play through guitar effects. These sensors have a more powerful and rich sound. Due to these qualities, humbuckers are more suitable for heavy music.
Manufacturers combine sensors of both types in different sequences and thus achieve a variety of instrument sounds. In the description of the electric guitar, you can see something like S-S-H or H-S-H – thus, the sequence in which the pickups are installed on the guitar is S – single (single), H – humbucker.
Pickups can be passive and active. Active sensors have a wider frequency range and a weaker output signal. To amplify it, a crown preamp is built into the guitar. Active sensors, as well as passive ones, can be either singles or humbuckers.
To switch between pickups, a switch (11) is installed on the guitar, making one or two of the pickups installed on the guitar active. By switching between pickups, you can change the sound produced by the guitar.