The influence of the tempo-rhythmic structure of music on the psychophysiological state of a person
Musical culture in its deepest meaning has long gone beyond the circle of music lovers in the modern world. The widespread use of music in order to influence the state of man has now taken on an almost total character. The property of music to influence a person’s condition is now used in therapeutic sessions, advertising, cinema, etc.
The direction of music therapy and musical suggestion, insufficiently studied by modern psychological science, brings, among other things, unexpected results of using music to influence the state of consciousness, especially on a massive scale.
The lack of recommendations justified by scientific research allows choosing the newly-minted musical “Kashpirovsky” and “Chumak” amateurish approach, in which authoritarianism is positioned, implying that any product of this person’s activity has a designated property, regardless of the observance of production technology. That emasculates the very idea of the proper use of music in the processes of positing, therapy, rehabilitation and prevention of stressful, depressive and pathological mental trends.
At present, the study of the influence of music as a separate area is highlighted in “music therapy”. Here, the relationship between changes in the course of the disease and the music used during the treatment period is investigated. Moreover, the emphasis is placed not so much on music as on a “complex multi-level matrix” (Yu. Ryzhov), but on vibrations of sound vibrations. Often, it is sound vibrations that stand out indicating the numerical values of sound frequencies that resonate with a specific part of the brain. For example, “a low beta rhythm with a frequency of 15 Hz intensifies the normal state of waking consciousness. High beta rhythm with a frequency of 30 Hz causes a condition similar to that that occurs after cocaine use. An alpha rhythm of 10.5 Hz causes a state of deep relaxation.
According to a number of preliminary data in this state, the brain produces a large number of neuro-neptides that increase immunity. The theta rhythm with a frequency of 7.5 Hz contributes to the onset of a condition characteristic of deep meditation. At a low theta rhythm with a frequency of 4 Hz, sometimes an experience arises, which is called in the literature “travel outside the body.” At frequencies below 4 Hz there is a strong desire to fall asleep, the difficulty of maintaining waking consciousness ”(A. Goncharov, 2003).
Almost all developments in the field of musical influence are carried out by physicians or, at best, psychologists. But almost every work contains references to the results of hardware research, where the influence of individual sound frequencies or their combination, which is not music by definition, is measured. In Dahl’s dictionary, “MUSIC is the art of harmonious and consonant combination of sounds, both sequential (melody, tune, voice) and joint (harmony, harmony, consonance), and art is in action”.
Hence the name of the direction as “music therapy” is hasty and unreasonable, although many therapists use classical music in their treatment and rehabilitation sessions, but prefer to talk about the positive effect of the sounds of the violin or organ.
In our opinion, the influence of music on the human condition must be studied taking into account all aspects of the musical structure. In the structure of a musical work, we can distinguish the following:
– The physical and motor aspect
– Emotionally dynamic aspect
– Reflective-meditative aspect
– Suggestive trance aspect
All aspects are directly related to the components of the internal structure of music. Component-structural analysis of music makes it possible to highlight the tempo-rhythmic, harmonic and melodic structure, which in turn also have the ability to emphasize the nuances of changes in the psychophysical state. This allows us to observe changes in the psychophysical state of a person throughout the entire musical composition. In this case, we consider the impact of music only as the connection of musical sound with the psychophysical reaction of a person.
The bodily-motor aspect of the influence of music is the oldest in the chronology of the emergence of elements of the musical structure. This is due to the simplicity of the reproduction of the plan – it is enough to tap with a stick on a log that has rotted out from the inside, and a tempo-rhythmic pattern is already possible. The ancient man made such a discovery and used the results to accompany the rituals of initiation into warriors, preparation for the hunt, which implied the active inclusion of the body-motor component.
We associate it with the tempo-rhythmic component of a musical work. In music theory, temp is the speed of a piece of music. That is, the same work can be performed at a different pace. Here the change of state depends on the speed of perception of music by a particular person. In our opinion, the discrepancy between the speed of music playback and the author’s intention removes a significant part of the influence of a musical work.